Three kinds of biological hierarchies that form the basis of biological integration and scaling. A) Physiological: Hierarchy of functional or metabolic units within a plant from genes, metabolites (small molecules) to organelles, cells, leaves to the whole plant. B) Evolutionary: Hierarchical organization of the tree of life from individuals to lineages. C) Ecological: Nested spatial scales showing that ecological and biogeographic processes—from density- and frequency-dependent neighborhood interactions to environmental sorting, dispersal and biogeographic processes—that drive the distribution and diversity of life and shift with increasing spatial and temporal scales.

  Part of: Cavender-Bares J, Reich PB, Townsend PA, Banerjee A, Butler E, Desai A, Gevens A, Hobbie SE, Isbell F, Laliberté E, Meireles JE, Menninger H, Pavlick RP, Pinto-Ledezma J, Potter C, Schuman MC, Springer N, Stefanski A, Trivedi P, Trowbridge A, Williams L, Willis CG, Yang Y (2021) BII-Implementation: The causes and consequences of plant biodiversity across scales in a rapidly changing world. Research Ideas and Outcomes 7: e63850.