Exemplary plot of the B4WarmED experiment (Boreal Forest Warming in an Ecotone in Danger) in Cloquet, MN, USA [A] (Eisenhauer et al. 2014a). Heat cables in the soil, heat lamps, and permanently installed retractable tarps systems are used to manipulate temperature (ambient, ambient +1.7°C, and ambient +3.4°C) and summer precipitation (ambient, ambient -45%) in a full factorial design at two locations (Cloquet, Ely). Preliminary results of bait lamina decay (measure of soil animal activity; Eisenhauer et al. 2014b) in the different temperature treatments [B, modified after Thakur et al. (2018)]. Soil animal activity was assessed every two weeks by counting the number of decayed baits. Inset: changes in soil water content. Photo credit: Nico Eisenhauer.

  Part of: Eisenhauer N, Ferlian O, Craven D, Hines J, Jochum M (2019) Ecosystem responses to exotic earthworm invasion in northern North American forests. Research Ideas and Outcomes 5: e34564. https://doi.org/10.3897/rio.5.e34564