Trends from the largest P. vivipara population at Pitt Water. Each point is the mean of adult densities from numerous sampling events over each 2 year period. During 1976-83 a fixed 1 m2 quadrat was sampled (Prestedge 1998) while a different method was used from 2001-04 involving 25 m transects being sampled across the site (Ecomarine 2014). Other survey types (timed-search) have also found large population declines (see section 2.).   
  Part of: Liversage K, Byrne M (2018) A note on life-history traits and conservation concerns for viviparous Australian seastars (Parvulastra parvivipara and P. vivipara). Research Ideas and Outcomes 4: e29766.